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Oe no Masafusa and the Convergence of the 'Ways': The Twilight of Early Chinese Literary Studies and the Rise of Waka Studies in the Long Twelfth Century in Japan.


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This dissertation examines two major parallel but intersecting trajectories: that of kangaku (Chinese studies), specifically the Kidendo (history and literature) curriculum that flourished at the State Academy in the Heian period (794-1185), and kagaku (waka studies), which emerged in the twelfth century. I trace the concept of "way" (michi ) as it evolved from the Chinese studies curriculum to an aesthetic "way of life," characterized by a spontaneous and rigorous pursuit of literature and art. The emergence of the study of waka was significant not only because it functioned as a catalyst for the preservation and renewal of the ancient practice of waka, but also because numerous commentaries on the subject formed a canon that defined Japanese cultural identity in subsequent centuries.;As in the European Middle Ages, the long twelfth century (1086-1221) in Japan saw the revival of ancient customs and texts. In the West, the Greco-Roman Classics, particularly Aristotelian philosophy, were rediscovered, partly through Arabic translations. In Japan's case, the "twelfth century renaissance" of court culture was not ushered in through contact with new intellectual trends from overseas. Rather, after a century of regency rule by the non-imperial Fujiwara clan, the imperial rulers of the twelfth century were eager to legitimatize their regimes by applying the standards of newly reinterpreted precedents from the past. Called the "era of retired emperors" (insei-ki), Japanese society in the twelfth century was retrospective in character, and witnessed an effusion of cultural production, including the compilation of numerous literary anthologies, sequels to existing religious and historical texts, and treatises and commentaries on poems from the past. For courtiers, participation in imperial cultural enterprises was their sole means of assuring their families' survival, as warriors established their own government by the early 1190s.;Part One examines kanshi and waka traditions before the twelfth century through textual analyses of "prefaces" (jo), the majority of which appear in the literary anthology Honcho monzui (Literary Masterpieces of Japan, ca. 1058-65). This is followed by an examination of the role of the composition of Sino-Japanese poems in the lives of scholar-officials. I show how scholar-officials professionalized this practice as part of their household studies in the ninth through eleventh centuries. As part of my investigation of the literary genre of poetry prefaces, I also analyze the Chinese and Japanese prefaces to the Kokin wakashu (Collection of Japanese Poems from Ancient Times to the Present, 905), and the poet Noin's preface to his private collection of waka.;Part Two turns to the life and works of Oe no Masafusa (1041-1111), the foremost scholar of his time. I show how Masafusa responded to the changing realities of Kidendo scholars, while idealizing his learned ancestors, their fellow academicians, and their imperial patrons' "passions" ( suki) for the composition of Sino-Japanese poems. By closely reading some of the writings attributed to Masafusa, such as the Zoku hocho ojoden (Biographies of Those Reborn in Paradise in Japan II, ca, 1099-1104) and the Godansho (Notes on Dialogues with Oe no Masafusa, ca, 1107-11), I argue that Masafusa's nostalgic recollections of literati culture from the tenth and eleventh centuries ushered in the setsuwa (anecdotal tales) mode of narrative that epitomizes literary production in the twelfth century.;Part Three investigates the evolution of waka studies in the twelfth century. I first turn to Minamoto no Toshiyori's (1055?-1129?) waka treatise, Toshiyori zuino (Toshiyori's Principles of Waka, ca. 1111-15) and discuss the peculiarly anecdotal ways in which Toshiyori glosses ancient poetic diction for a female reader. I then examine how the Rokujo school of waka incorporated some of the formal trappings of kangaku scholarship in its revival of waka, while the Mikohidari school of waka further consolidated hereditary studies of poetry by emphasizing the difficulty of mastering waka composition. In sum, by analyzing Chinese and Japanese writings from Japan's long twelfth century, I propose a new intellectual history of Japan in a crucial period of transition from the ancient to the medieval age.
机译:本论文研究了两条主要的平行但相交的轨迹:kangaku(中国研究),特别是在平安时代(794-1185年)在国立学院兴旺的Kidendo(历史和文学)课程,以及kagaku(和歌研究),它出现在十二世纪。我追溯了“路”(michi)的概念,因为它从中国研究课程演变为一种美学的“生活方式”,其特征是对文学和艺术的自发和严格的追求。和歌研究的兴起具有重要意义,不仅因为它是古代和歌的保存和更新的催化剂,而且因为对此主题的众多评论形成了定义随后几个世纪日本文化身份的经典。与欧洲中世纪一样,日本漫长的十二世纪(1086-1221)见证了古代习俗和文字的复兴。在西方,部分通过阿拉伯语翻译重新发现了希腊罗马经典,特别是亚里士多德哲学。以日本为例,法院文化的“十二世纪复兴”不是通过与海外新的知识分子趋势接触而引发的。相反,在非帝国性藤原氏族进行了一个世纪的摄政统治之后,十二世纪的帝国统治者渴望通过运用新近重新诠释的先例的标准使他们的政权合法化。被称为“退休皇帝时代”(insei-ki)的日本社会在十二世纪具有回顾性,目睹了文化生产的泛滥,包括众多文学选集的汇编,现有宗教和历史文本的续集以及关于过去诗歌的论文和评论。对于朝臣而言,参加帝国文化事业是确保家人生存的唯一手段,因为战士在1190年代初期建立了自己的政府。第一部分通过对“序言”的文字分析来考察十二世纪之前的坎西和瓦卡传统。 jo),其中大部分出现在文学选本Honcho monzui(日本文学巨著,约1058-65)中。接下来是对中日诗歌创作在士大夫生活中的作用的考察。我展示了学者官员在第九至十一世纪如何将这种做法作为家庭研究的一部分进行了专业化处理。作为我对诗歌序言文学流派的研究的一部分,我还分析了中古日文《 Kokin wakashu》(《日本古代史到现在的诗集》 905年)和诗人Noin为其私人收藏的序言。第二部分转向当时的最重要学者大江正富(1041-1111)的生活和作品。我展示了Masafusa如何应对Kidendo学者不断变化的现实,同时理想化他的学识渊源的祖先,他们的院士和他们的帝王顾客对中日诗歌创作的“热情”(suki)。通过仔细阅读一些与Masafusa相关的著作,例如Zoku hocho ojoden(日本天堂重生者传记II,大约1099-1104年)和Godansho(与大江正之对话的注释,大约1107- 11),我认为Masafusa从10世纪到11世纪对文人文化的怀旧回忆引入了setsuwa(传闻故事)叙事模式,这是十二世纪文学生产的缩影。;第三部分研究了waka研究在12世纪的演变世纪。我首先转向Minamoto no Toshiyori(1055?-1129?)的waka专着,Toshiyori zuino(Toshiyori的Waka原理,约1111-15年),并讨论了Toshiyori掩盖了女性读者对古代诗歌的独特见解。然后,我研究了若歌六国学派如何在其若歌的复兴中纳入了一些传统的藏学奖学金的陷阱,而若香的Mikohidari学派则通过强调掌握若歌作曲的难度,进一步巩固了诗歌的遗传学研究。总之,通过分析日本十二世纪的中日著作,我提出了日本从古代到中世纪过渡的关键时期的新知识史。


  • 作者

    Shibayama, Saeko.;

  • 作者单位

    Columbia University.;

  • 授予单位 Columbia University.;
  • 学科 Literature Comparative.;Literature Medieval.;Literature Asian.
  • 学位 Ph.D.
  • 年度 2012
  • 页码 529 p.
  • 总页数 529
  • 原文格式 PDF
  • 正文语种 eng
  • 中图分类
  • 关键词


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