【摘要】We experience spatial separation and temporal asynchrony between visual and haptic information in many virtual-reality, augmented-reality, or teleoperation systems. Three studies were conducted to examine the spatial and temporal characteristic of multisensory integration. Participants interacted with virtual springs using both visual and haptic senses, and their perception of stiffness and ability to differentiate stiffness were measured. The results revealed that a constant visual delay increased the perceived stiffness, while a variable visual delay made participants depend more on the haptic sensations in stiffness perception. We also found that participants judged stiffness stiffer when they interact with virtual springs at faster speeds, and interaction speed was positively correlated with stiffness overestimation. In addition, it has been found that participants could learn an association between visual and haptic inputs despite the fact that they were spatially separated, resulting in the improvement of typing performance. These results show the limitations of Maximum-Likelihood Estimation model, suggesting that a Bayesian inference model should be used.
【授予单位】Arizona State University.;