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Jades from the Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng: Characteristics of Jades from the Eastern Zhou Period and Their Relationship with the Middle Springs and Autumns Ritual Restructuring.


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The focus and starting point of this study is a group of jades excavated from the tomb of the Marquis Yi of Zeng (died 430 BC). This undisturbed tomb yielded nearly three hundreds pieces of jade; they were well preserved and were highly representative for their remarkable quality and workmanship.;Lothar von Falkenhausen proposed that a political movement occurred around 600 B.C., which resembled the Late Western Zhou Ritual Reform (circa 850 B.C.). He entitled this movement "the Middle Springs and Autumns Ritual Restructuring." 1 This "Restructuring" was advocated by a group of rulers of local polities who wished to strengthen their newly established kingdoms and reinstate social order through the restoration of religious and ritual ceremonies of the Western Zhou period. The "Restructuring" was characterized by a shift of social hierarchy and a change in religious content which had significant impact on people's lives in Eastern Zhou society. The main intention of this research is to find out the characteristics of jades from the Eastern Zhou Period and their relationship with the "Restructuring".;This investigation proceeds from four major perspectives. The first section studies how the set of sumptuary rules in the ceremonial system established after the "Western Zhou Ritual Reform" have been restored by the ruling class after the "Restructuring". This research has revealed that a new ceremonial system has been established after the "Restructuring" to justify users' political and social status. The second section examines the changing roles of jade in everyday contexts after the "Restructuring", from the perspectives of its value, function, and significance in society. The research has shown that although the feudal system has collapsed gradually with rapid social mobilization, jades were mostly confined to the upper class during the entire Eastern Zhou period. Their marvelous craftsmanship and enormous size were used to display users' political power, extraordinary taste and wealth.;The third section will look at the issues surrounding the use and understanding of archaic jades during this period. The "Restructuring" advocated the restoration of religious cult and ritual of Late Western Zhou period, which lead to the employment of archaic jade and motifs borrowed from bronzes as potent political symbol and legitimacy. The fourth section discusses the ways in which the emergence of new religious ideologies affected the manufacturing of jades for burial. The belief of the afterworld and the existence of soul affected the production of burial jades in terms of functions, form and style. These burial jades show that the religious transformation of the Qin and Han Dynasty was, in fact, originated during the Warring States Period.;Furthermore, differentiation of jades used among different social classes is also considered throughout these discussions. Finally, this research concludes with the discussion of the discourse of the existence of regional differences of jade from the Eastern Zhou period; the outcome of the "Restructuring" and the characteristics of jade excavated from the Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng. This research is the only in-depth study of the Marquis Yi's jades known to date and should fill a major gap thirty years after their excavation.;1Lothar von Falkenhausen, Chinese Society in the Age of Confucius (1000-250 BC): The Archaeological Evidence (Los Angeles: Cotsen Institute of Archaeology, University of California, 2006).
机译:这项研究的重点和起点是从曾侯爵(公元前430年去世)的墓中出土的一组玉器。这个未被破坏的坟墓产生了近三百件玉器。劳斯·冯·法肯豪森(Lothar von Falkenhausen)提出政治运动发生在公元前600年左右,类似于西周后期的礼节改革(大约公元前850年)。他将此运动称为“中春秋节仪式的重组”。 1这种“重组”是由一群当地政体的统治者所提倡的,他们希望通过恢复西周时期的宗教和仪式来加强新建立的王国并恢复社会秩序。 “结构调整”的特征是社会等级制度的转变和宗教内容的改变,这对东周社会的人们的生活产生了重大影响。本研究的主要目的是找出东周时期玉器的特征及其与“改制”的关系。本研究主要从四个方面入手。第一部分研究“西周礼节改革”后建立的礼仪体系中的一套售礼规则在“重组”后如何由统治阶级恢复。该研究表明,在“重组”之后建立了新的礼仪系统,以证明用户的政治和社会地位是合理的。第二部分从“玉器”的价值,功能和在社会中的意义的角度考察了玉器在“重组”之后在日常环境中的变化作用。研究表明,尽管随着社会的迅速动员,封建制度逐渐瓦解,但在整个东周时期,玉器大多局限于上层阶级。他们出色的工艺和巨大的尺寸被用来展示用户的政治力量,非凡的品味和财富。;第三部分将研究在此期间围绕使用和理解古玉的问题。 “改组”主张恢复西周后期的宗教信仰和礼仪,从而导致使用古玉和从青铜器中借来的图案作为有力的政治象征和合法性。第四部分讨论了新的宗教意识形态的出现如何影响玉器的生产。对后世的信仰和灵魂的存在从功能,形式和风格上影响了墓葬玉的生产。这些埋葬玉表明,秦汉时期的宗教改造实际上是在战国时期产生的。此外,在整个讨论中也考虑了玉器在不同社会阶层之间的区别。最后,本研究以讨论东周时期玉器区域差异存在的论述为结尾。曾侯爵墓出土的“改制”成果和玉器特征。这项研究是迄今唯一对马奎斯·伊的玉器进行的深入研究,应该在发掘后三十年内填补一个重大空白。1洛夫·冯·法肯豪森,孔子时代的中国社会(公元前1000-250年):考古学证据(洛杉矶:加利福尼亚大学科森考古研究所,2006年)。


  • 作者

    Yau, Ka Man.;

  • 作者单位

    The Chinese University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong).;

  • 授予单位 The Chinese University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong).;
  • 学科 Art History.;Anthropology Archaeology.;History Asia Australia and Oceania.
  • 学位 Ph.D.
  • 年度 2010
  • 页码 496 p.
  • 总页数 496
  • 原文格式 PDF
  • 正文语种 eng
  • 中图分类
  • 关键词


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