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Investigation of the use of Photon Counting X-Ray Detectors with Energy Discrimination Capability for Material Decomposition in Micro-Computed Tomography

机译:具有能量识别能力的光子计数X射线探测器在微计算机断层扫描中用于材料分解的研究

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Recently developed solid-state detectors combined with high-speed ASICs that allow individual pixel pulse processing may prove useful as detectors for small animal micro-computed tomography. One appealing feature of these photon-counting x-ray detectors (PCXDs) is their ability to discriminate between photons with different energies and count them in a small number (2-5) of energy windows. The data in these energy windows may be thought of as arising from multiple simultaneous x-ray beams with individual energy spectra, and could thus potentially be used to perform material composition analysis. The goal of this paper was to investigate the potential advantages of PCXDs with multiple energy window counting capability as compared to traditional integrating detectors combined with acquisition of images using x-ray beams with 2 different kVps. For the PCXDs, we investigated 3 potential sources of crosstalk: scatter in the object and detector, limited energy resolution, and pulse piluep. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we showed that scatter in the object and detector results in relatively little crosstalk between the data in the energy windows. To study the effects of energy resolution and pulse-pileup, we performed simulations evaluating the accuracy and precision of basis decomposition using a detector with 2 or 5 energy windows and a single kVp compared to an dual kVp acquisitions with an integrating detector. We found that, for noisy data, the precision of estimating the thickness of two basis materials for a range of material compositions was better for the single kVp multiple energy window acquisitions compared to the dual kVp acquisitions with an integrating detector. The advantage of the multi-window acquisition was somewhat reduced when the energy resolution was reduced to 10 keV and when pulse pileup was included, but standard deviations of the estimated thicknesses remained better by more than a factor of 2.
机译:最近开发的固态检测器与允许单个像素脉冲处理的高速ASIC结合在一起,可能会被用作小型动物微计算机断层扫描的检测器。这些光子计数X射线检测器(PCXD)的一个吸引人的特征是它们能够区分具有不同能量的光子并以少量(2-5)的能量窗口对它们进行计数的能力。这些能量窗口中的数据可能被认为是由多个同时具有独立能谱的X射线束产生的,因此有可能被用于执行材料成分分析。本文的目的是研究与传统积分探测器结合使用具有2个不同kVps的X射线图像获取图像相比,具有多个能量窗口计数功能的PCXD的潜在优势。对于PCXD,我们研究了3个潜在的串扰源:物体和检测器中的散射,有限的能量分辨率和脉冲串。使用蒙特卡洛模拟,我们显示了对象和检测器中的散射导致能量窗口中数据之间的串扰相对较小。为了研究能量分辨率和脉冲堆积的影响,我们使用带有2个或5个能量窗口和单个kVp的检测器与带集成检测器的双kVp采集进行了比较,评估了基础分解的准确性和精度。我们发现,对于嘈杂的数据,与带有积分检测器的双kVp采集相比,对于单kVp多能量窗口采集,估计一系列材料成分的两种基本材料的厚度的精度更好。当能量分辨率降低到10 keV并包括脉冲堆积时,多窗口采集的优势有所降低,但是估计厚度的标准偏差仍保持2倍以上。

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